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南京二手房交易量三连降 挂牌价持续走高

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 5月上旬各地楼市集体回暖 预计北京将迎量价齐涨 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

"陷阱"合同、克扣押金 黑中介套路满满专坑租房人

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

More than 80 percent of Chinese students returned to the country after completing their studies abroad, and the country has sent 544,500 students in 2016 to study abroad.
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这些人造耳朵对那些遭受过耳朵伤害或者耳朵停滞发育即患有小耳畸形的人来讲是巨大的福音。
Bank of China posted earnings per share of Rmb0.56, down from Rmb0.61, and a pre-tax dividend per share of Rmb0.175, down from Rmb0.19 last year.
根据声明,通州新的行政中心将把基础设施升级和生态建设放在首位。北京市政府希望可以提高该地区的教育、医疗、文化事务与产业在内的公共服务发展。
Sa?d Business School achieved the biggest rise at the top of the open ranking, jumping five places to fourth. It is the first time that the school, based at the University of Oxford, is ranked in the top five. Sa?d improved its position in all 10 criteria informed by the participants’ ratings.
People walk in the rain along the swollen Potomac River in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, DC, on Tuesday.

中国旅游研究院的蒋依依建议,中国政府应实行一项长期的国家计划,以提升国家形象并投资于入境旅游以吸引更多游客前来。
['spekju.l?tiv]
报告发现,艺术学、农学、工学专业的学生创业意愿最高,而历史学和理科专业的学生创业兴趣相对较低。
Lady Gaga以5.9千万位列第四,其后是5.45千万的碧昂斯。前者在统计期间演出了66场,也靠与范思哲和MAC的合约获得收入,同时还有她自己的黑色香水。后者与其老公Jay Z的On The Run巡回演唱会通过19天(北美日期),赚得了超过10千万,创造了能与滚石相比较的第一对音乐界夫妻档夜平均的神话。
作为回应,维尔德斯把吕特归为骗子,指责后者未能遵守在2012年选举期间做出的不支持纾困希腊的承诺。

Footnotes

  • “大悦城”起诉“大阅城”索赔150万
  • 单词summary 联想记忆:

"Game of Thrones" was not only the most downloaded show of the TV season, but also the most downloaded show of the year. In fact, the per episode illegal downloads figure is higher than the best ratings "Game of Thrones" has ever had。
在上月销量最高的SUV和MPV制造商中,大家所熟悉的长城汽车和上汽通用五菱汽车成功卫冕。在轿车和掀背车型上,上汽大众也保持其冠军地位。
凯特温丝莱特凭借她在电影《乔布斯》中扮演的乔安娜霍夫曼一角斩获金球奖最佳女配角奖项。当她听到自己获奖时,她目瞪口呆地坐在椅子上不敢相信。
A master class in old-school, super-linear action filmmaking, full of nasty, punk-rock, dystopian Australian humor. Also the best recent eco-feminist-socialist allegory that isn’t a novel by Margaret Atwood. (Read the review)
艾丽斯·斯瓦策尔多年来一直为争取女性权利而斗争。她对像唐纳德·特朗普这样“老式的性别歧视者”能够当上美国总统深感震惊。
A new MIT white paper, ominously entitled "Are You Prepared for the Supply Chain Talent Crisis?," bears that out. Supply chain managers need sophisticated tech skills, sure, but they also have to be adept at "high-order diplomacy," expert at general business strategy and problem solving, and able to "thrive in ambiguity," the study says.

楼市向好成交量稳步回升 房企宣布全面提价

References

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